Climate changes today
The ‘Effect of the Naval War’ is a serious matter to discuss. The detailed investigation we went through in our pervious chapters proves that this phenomenon clearly dominated the climatic situation during the last century. The climate changed at least twice because of the war at sea. We still have to answer the question: by which proportion is man responsible for global warming?
The 20th century climatic changes
The ‘Effect of the Naval War’ is a serious matter to discuss. The detailed investigation we went through in our pervious chapters proves that this phenomenon clearly dominated the climatic situation during the last century. The climate changed at least twice because of the war at sea. We still have to answer the question: by which proportion is man responsible for global warming? This issue has been the subject of arduous debates for more than 20 years. And most of the claims say that modern civilization is responsible for the higher atmospheric temperatures, which were caused by man-made greenhouse gases. The Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), active since 1988, is the main supporter of this thesis.
Causes of the climate change (the 19th century)
Since the middle of the 19th century, when industrialization started to grow rapidly, man became an active user of the surrounding nature in many respects. That brings up the big question: did temperatures rise because of the end of the Little Ice Age only or did human activities have a major contribution to this climatic phenomenon? There are a number of man-made contributory factors that may have had specific impacts on the atmospheric heating, e.g. local warming in the cities (due to housing, roads, and other resultant factors), smoke and dust over long distances or deforestation of huge forest areas. Each of the above examples may have had temporary or long lasting implications, but none of them is a major source for the strong warming or cooling trends during the last 150 years. However, two major contributors (shipping and naval war) have been given little or no attention at all until now. Although the surface of the oceans is gigantic, their structure can be still influenced by certain factors. As we want to understand the impact of the oceans on climate better, we will briefly consider the main oceanic conditions.
If the sun were “turned off,” the temperature of the atmosphere would be with only 28°C above absolute zero, viz.-245°C.With the sun and the “greenhouse gases”, but without water, the average temperature on earth would be of- 11°C (resulting from a daytime mean temperature of approximately +135°C and a nighttime temperature of approximately-175°C). The moon provides such conditions at night. CO2 would delay the cooling towards the absolute minimum only for a short time. Its functioning on earth is not so much different.
Oceans and their functions
The oceans affected by naval and merchant ships operating and sailing the seas back and forth should have been the hottest topic in the debate on climate change since meteorology was established as a science in the late 19th century. Instead of that, oceans were ignored up to the late 20th century and not even today do they enjoy the significant position they deserve. Oceans are a decisive climatic force, the second after the sun.
Who contributed and to which extent?
We are going to make a brief assessment of the percentage that each major contributor had in the process of the global warming. The earth’s temperature has been rising for several decades. That is a fact that we all agree on.Many people also agree that The Little Ice Age came to an end because the series of Middle Age volcanic activities had ceased in the first place. As its impact on global warming is a significant one, natural causes are given a contribution rate of 50%. The next high rating of 30% is given to the section “ocean uses”. 20-25% is allocated to general ocean uses, as it happens day by day since the end of the Little Ice Age. Finally, only 5–10% is attributed to the naval war.
Other contributors and summary
One could possibly name many dozens of aspects and sources, alone or in combination with others that might contribute to warmer or colder regional and global air temperature. But none of them belongs to the “premiere league”, as a major player. Not to be ignored, they are given a rating of 10 %.
Why focus on war at sea?
To begin with, there is nothing so impossible to observe and to record as the ocean water masses are. There have never been such large oceanic experiments before the two big naval wars, each with the duration of a half-decade during WWI and WWII. Although industrialization and meteorological science emerged two centuries ago, reliable ocean statistics, comparable to atmospheric weather statistics, is extremely scarce, not to mention the anthropogenic ocean usage which hardly exists. The use of oceans has never been taken into account seriously when it came to its determinant role in the climate change. So far, serious data is not available. One would have to look for computer modelling, which, until now, has rarely given impressive results.
Can WWII go by unnoticed?
The aim of the book was to drag the attention on the oceans, to explain the real cause of the global rising of temperatures, phenomenon that scientists started to study in the 1980’s. The aim of the book was to ensure that the mainstream of climate research was not constantly missing the point. The investigation had the purpose to establish that anthropogenic climatic changes were real and caused by the two grand field experiments that men undertook during the last century.
Those readers who wish to read a comprehensive scientific assessment, with detailed references, can find complete information in the book “Climate Change and Naval War”, published by Trafford/Canada, 2005, or visit www.seaclimate.com, or, www.seaclimate.de www.oceanclimate.de www.warchangesclimate.com